Minggu, 04 Maret 2012

BOROBUDUR, PRAMBANAN, AND BOKO

The extraordinary cultural heritage of Central Java A lush tropical landscape dotted with hundreds of archeological temples, including two UNESCO world heritage sites, Borobudur and Prambanan, this is a destination that leaves you spellbound. The grandeur and complexity of the temples has to be seen to be believed, and photography struggles to convey the depth. batik Traditional craft continues to be a feature of Central Javan life, here a batik cloth is carefully treated by a villager with wax before dying At a time when Europe was still in the dark ages, the “Central Javanese Period“ was building religious structures and art, now recognised as being the oldest and highest level of art within South East Asia Central Javanese spirituality and artistic endeavour continues to exist side by side with mundanities of every day life. A brief history At the time in which these monuments were built, Indian pilgrims had spread Buddhist and Hindu teachings spread across Java, Indonesia. The proud ruling dynasties of Central Java built a seemingly endless number of structures, of all scales. Buddhist and Hindu religions lived harmoniously side by side across Java, and as families of different religions married, even mixed religion temples were built. The adaption of Indian religion and customs with the local artistry and traditions bred its own unique style; “Hindu-Java Art” . Around 920 the power shifted from Central Java to West Java and the monuments including Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu Boko became neglected, exposed to ash from volcanic eruptions, and the ravages of the local vegetation. Now restoration sees these world relevant sites back on the map with millions of people visiting each year. Orient Me! Java is the most populous island in Indonesia, South East Asia. This is land is densely populated, and the majority of people now practice Islam. Prambanan, Borobudur and Ratu Boko are close to the major centre of Yogyakarta, also referred to by locals as Jogja. Yogyakarta has a population of approximately 4 million people. Not too far away are two other interesting cities, both with international airports. Solo, and Semarang, where some people also choose to stay. map Access to the area is easy by plane, train, or buses. Once in the region, given the driving conditions, it is recommended you hire one of the many local drivers rather than rent your own vehicle. For to-the-minute information on travel and hiring a driver, our friendly Visitor Assistance Centre can help. By car from Yogyakarta: Prambanan is around 30 minutes drive Borobudur is approximately 40 minutes away Ratu Boko is close to 35 minutes drive Looking for something? Getting around the area
getting area of borobudur, prambanan and ratu boko Event timeline borobudur event timeline RATU BOKO TEMPLE ratu_boko_7 On a hillside plateau, overlooking Prambanan temple complex and with a view to Mount Merapi behind Prambanan Temple complex, lie the remains of a once grand palace. The palace (kraton) is named Ratu Boko after a King Boko of local folklore, but the real owner of the palace is more likely to have been a king of a local dynasty. The position gives a view worthy of royalty, but in addition, it is possible that the location was chosen for strategic reasons, as the structures also show signs of being fortified, and a dry moat was used for additional security. Grand stone gates, built on two levels, are the largest and most often photographed structures of the site, it is clear that these lead to what was once a settlement, which sets Ratu Boko apart from the other archeological sites in Central Java which are entirely religious in nature. The hilltop plateau is divided into terraces that are separated by stone walls and stone faced fortifications. The main residence is thought to have been built on a set of stone foundations with a timber structure for pillars and roof. The timber elements are no longer in place, but the stone base shows the scale of the residence. ratu_boko_11Throughout the area you can find small Hindu and Buddhist temples and structures, a fountain adorned bathing area, bath house, a crematorium, multiple caves, an area used as a public hall. In 1790 the Dutchman Van Boeckholtz found ruins, and over time research was done, and by 1838 the Dutch commenced restoration work. In 1952 the Indonesian government took the reigns, and has continued work since then. Ratu Boko is atop a hill, and a system of drainage trenches and water storage ponds was developed to maintain water supply. The folklore of Loro Djonggrang ratu_boko_5This story connects the Ratu Boko Palace with the Prambanan and Sewu temple complex. The name of King Boko comes from Javanese Folklore, in which King Boko was the father of Loro Djonggrang. A prince named Bandung desperately wanted Loro Djonggang to marry him and she refused, as she he had killed her father. He insisted, and she finally agreed on one condition. He must build 1000 temples in one night. Prince
Bandung summoned up spirits to help him, and close to dawn, much to the dismay of Loro Djonggrang they had completed the 999th temple. Loro Djonggrang ordered all of the servants to light a large fire, and begin pounding rice. The roosters were fooled into thinking it was dawn and began to crow, the spirits fled, and the final temple was left unbuilt. Prince Bandung was furious and turned Loro Djonggrang into stone, representing the final temple. According to the traditions, she is the image of Durga in the north cell of the Shiva temple at Prambanan, which is also known as Loro Jonggrang or the Slender Virgin. Getting there and getting in Ratu Boko is located 3km south of the Prambanan complex and east of Yogyakarta, off the road to Solo. We recommend you organise a car and driver through either our Visitor Assistance Centre or your hotel. This way you can also have transport ready to take you back when you are ready to head back. The other alternatives are a tour group mini-bus, or even a taxi. Tickets are available at the official ticket booth at the entrance The fees are as follows: Indonesian local or KITAS card holder, weekday 10 000 Rupiah Indonesian local or KITAS card holder, weekend 12 500 Rupiah Foreigner $10 US Foreigner - registered student $6 US Group entry is also available, please contact our marketing department directly on marketing@borobudurpark.co.id for more information on group rates. Historical notes The history of Ratu Boko is unclear, and much of what is understood about the site comes from inscriptions and even folklore. ratu_boko_4The oldest inscription found on the site is believed to date back to 792AD, naming the site Abhayagiri Wihara. Archaeologists to believe that the ruler of the Saliendra Dynasty between 760-780, Rakai Panangkaran, built Ratu Boko after he resigned from his leadership. It is said that he resigned because he wanted to find spiritual peace and concentrate on religious matters. Abhayagiri Wihara means ‘peaceful Buddhist monastery’ . The site chosen has fairly spectacular views. Of Buddhist faith, Rakai Panangkaran was responsible for the building of Borobudur temple as well as Sewu and Kalasan temples during his reign. The name of the site changed to Walaing Kraton, Kraton being palace in the local language, in an inscription known as the Mandyasih inscription. This change of name was made by Rakai Walaing pu Kumbhayoni who is recognised as a king, and ruled from 856-863AD. During the 17th Century, a Dutch man H.J.DeGraff noted that Europeans coming to Indonesia had reported a heritage site, and referred to it being the palace of Prabu Boko, a king who came originally from Bali. This is the Prabu Boko of the Loro Djonggrang folklore. A mix of Buddhist and Hindu structures are found on the complex, including the Buddhist Dyani Budha, Stupika, Terakota Tablet, and a gold and silver plaque with a Buddhist inscription. Three small Hindu temples, as well as Yoni, a Durga statue, a Ganesha statue and a plaque with an inscription to Rudra, the other name for the god Siwa (Shiva). Four zones The site splits neatly into four areas. 1 Western Approximately 2 hectares, this area is known by locals as Mount Tlatar - hill of arranged stones. The hill sides are quite steep and only parts of it are used for farming. The archaeological finds here have been interesting, a sedimentary rock pathway, ponds small and large as well as local and foreign earthenware. ratu_boko_92 Central The large stone gates are impressive, the first has three entrances, and the second has five, the shape of these entrances is known as Paduraksa and is traditional Javanese in construction. Not far from the gates is a limestone Batu Putih temple, the name means ‘white stone’. There is also a structure of two levels which measures 26 metres square. The centre is a deep square hole. It is speculated that this would have been a crematorium. This zone also has a large pond, and a series of base stones which would have held building pillars. Using the traditional building techniques of the time, the pillars walls and roof would have been made from organic materials, so they are no longer remaining. 3 Southeast Evidence exists of an audience hall or pavilion, surrounded by a stone wall with another Paduraksa entrance way, again the position of where the pillars would have been located is evident. A rectangular pool is nearby, as well as three small temples. Another series of round and rectangular pools is in this area.ratu_boko_3 ratu_boko_104 East The Eastern area has more ponds, and also a series of caves. The caves are carved into the rock. The Lanang Cave houses three white stone statues. Stairs down to some of the caves have been carved in to the hillside rock. A statue of Buddha is also found in this area. Copyright © 2012 Borobudur, Prambanan & Ratu Boko. All Rights Reserved.

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